Frequency of Leg Pain, Edema, and its Associated Factors among Nurses Working on Shift Duty in Private Tertiary Care Hospital, Karachi


  • Shakeel Rufan Khokhar Faculty of Nursing, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Badil Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Raja Department of Plastic Surgery, Dr. Ruth KM Pfau Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan



Lower extremity pain, Swelling, long-standing, Nursing Staff, Ziauddin Hospitals.


Background: Long-standing hours cause nurses to be at high risk of lower extremity pain and edema that can lead to varicose veins and deep venous thrombosis.

Objective: To determine the frequency of leg pain and edema and to determine the factors associated with leg pain and edema among nurses working in shifts on duty.

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, carried out at Ziauddin Hospital Karachi on 242 male and female nurses. Non-probability purposive sampling method was used to access the participants. Data was collected on a questionnaire designed for the study, Pain numeric rating scale was used to record pain.  A chi-square test of independence was applied to the association. The p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Out of a total of 242 nurses, the majority 84 (56.4%) were male nurses and 65(43.6%) were female nurses. Lower extremity pain was reported in 55 % and leg edema in 22.53% of participants. A significant association between right leg pain, left leg pain, low extremity pain, and leg edema was found with gender; females were more prone as compared to male nurses (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant association between pain and leg edema is established in participants who were on double duty. The highest number of participants with leg pain and edema were observed in the sub group with body weight of 68 kg and above. There was a significant association between leg edema and the body weight.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the frequency of leg pain and edema was much higher in nurses with body weight of 68kg and above and working double duty in a shift in a tertiary care private hospital.


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How to Cite

Khokhar SR, Badil, Raja. Frequency of Leg Pain, Edema, and its Associated Factors among Nurses Working on Shift Duty in Private Tertiary Care Hospital, Karachi. J Shalamar Med Dent Coll [Internet]. 2023 Jun. 27 [cited 2024 May 18];4(1):45-52. Available from:



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